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Tripoli and Balkan Wars

Navy’s Tripoli and Balkan Wars

The Battle of Tripoli began in 1911 and Italy confiscated the Drama cruiser when it received its money. In 1912, the Italian navy attacked the port of Beirut. The Ottoman navy was defeated; While the Italians were not lost, two battleships of the Ottoman navy went down. The Italian fleet also attacked the Dardanelles to force the Ottoman Empire to peace, but when the Ottoman administration created an effect in the opposite direction, the Twelve Islands and Rhodes were occupied. Meanwhile, the Ottoman navy dug out the fronts of Thessaloniki and Izmir ports so that the Anatolian and Balkan coasts could not be attacked. But this led to a sea disaster; On April 29, 1912, the American ship called Texas, which ran from Izmir to Thessaloniki, hit the mine and crashed. The Ottoman navy did not enter into conflict with the Italian navy while the islands were being occupied in the Aegean. The war ended with the Uchi Treaty. During the war, Colonel Tahir Bey was brought to the Navy command in 1911. Exercises were made during this period.

In 912, the Balkan wars began when the war with Italy continued. In the inventory of the Ottoman Navy, there were six armored ships, two armored cruisers, eleven destroyers, thirty torpedo boats, and nine auxiliary ships. At the same time, two submarines were built in Istanbul. Hamidiye and Mecidiye war vessels were the Navy’s modern ships and could resist the Averof cruiser. In the war of 1897, the Ottoman navy did not actively participate in the war, which encouraged the Greek navy. The Greek Navy trained its personnel with the help of French and British officers. Along with that, the warships were being bought by agreement with European companies. The Kingdom of Bulgaria, however, had a small defensive naval base and was forced to mine its shores. As the Battle of Tripoli continued, the Ottoman Navy could not be deployed anywhere. But there were some forces for the Balkan Wars:

Yer Zırhlılar Kruvazörler Korvetler Muhripler Torpidobotlar Gambot
Çanakkale Boğazı Barbaros Hayreddin, Turgut Reis, Mesudiye, Asar-ı Tevfik Mecidiye – Basra, Samsun, Yarhisar Demirhisar, Kütahya, Hamidabat, Akhisar –
İstanbul Boğazı – Hamidiye, Berk-i Satvet Zuhaf Yadigar-ı Millet, Taşoz, Muavenet-i Milliye, Nümune-i Hamiyyet Sultanhisar, Sivrihisar Nevşehir
İzmir – – Muini Zafer İzzettin Timsah, Yunus –
Selanik – – Fethi Bülent, Necm-i Şevket Fuat – –
Preveze – – – – Antalya, Tokat Hamidiye, Alpagut
Süveyş Kanalı – Peyk-i Şevket – – Beyrut, Malatya, Yozgat, Taşköprü –
While fixing – – – Gayret-i Vataniyye Berkefşan, Pelengidarya, Draç –

On October 16, 1912, the Black Sea Operation began with a given order. It was announced by the Ottoman State that the seaport between Varna and Burgaz was cut, the Bulgarian ships that were found were destroyed and the Bulgarian ports were bombed. However, some European states protested that it would harm trade. On October 17, 1912, under the command of Colonel Tahir Bey, Barbaros Hayreddin, Turgut Reis armored combat ships and the Muavenet-i Milliye and Taşoz revolutionaries came on the road. But due to a storm, the attack was delayed. As a result of this delay, the Bulgarian navy had already learned of the Turkish offensive. When the Turkish fleet reached Varna port, two Bulgarian torpedoes were waiting. These torpedo boats were pulled back to the lima by the attack of the Ottoman friars, and Turgut Reis and Barbaros Hayreddin armored bombardiers began. However, Colonel Tahir Bey, worried that the coasts were mined, did not make armored people much closer to the shores. The Turkish fleet waited in front of the harbor for a day. On October 20, the Muavenet-i Milliye was sent to Istanbul for coal supply. The fleet under the command of Albay Tahir Bey watched the shoreline extending to Burgas. Meanwhile, the Hamidiye cruiser staff questioned the staff of a Bulgarian ship and learned that the Bourgas coast was mine-free by October 18th. As a result, the Ottoman fleet, who did not know the location of the Bulgarian coastal defenses, could not make an effective bombing approach to the shore. The Ottoman blockade in front of the Bulgarian coast continued. The Bulgarian people at the harbor of Varna did not make any shots and did not show their location. On October 24, a cannon was shot at the Mecidiye cruiser. As a result, mutual bombardment began.

On November 20, 1912, a fleet commanded by Rauf Bey was launched into the sea. Bulgarian torpedobots acted to attack Turkish shipping vessels, according to al-Annan intelligence. The Ottoman fleet consisted of the Hamidiye cruiser and the Berkefshan and Yarhisar friars. The fleet began to wait in a scattered state on the way to the Turkish shipping vessels, informing others by throwing red cartridges of Bulgarian ships. The Hamidiye cruiser, who saw the Bulgarian ships at 00.40 on the night of November 21st, threw a red cartridge and understood the situation of the Bulgarian ships, and the war began. The Turkish ships were unable to shoot properly, but as a result of the Bulgarian ships’ attack, the nose of Hamidiye was damaged and water began to be taken. After the attack of the Ottomans, the Bulgarian torpedoes were withdrawn and the damaged Hamidiye was sent to Istanbul for repair. The Mecidiye cruiser was on his way to capture Bulgarian torpedoes. But something could not be achieved.

In the meantime, the Ottoman black armies began to retreat. It was envisaged that the Ottoman army would be pulled up to Çatalca, and the Ottoman navy was ordered to support it from the coast within the framework of this withdrawal. The Navy successfully captured the Bulgarian troops from the shore and saved time for the retreating troops. The Minister of Naval Affairs decided that instead of supporting the war of Catalan in the war in the sea, the Aegean opened up and slowed the progress of the Greek troops in Thrace. Bargar army attacked in the direction of Çatalca. Some of the battleships, including Barbarossa Hayreddin’s armor, were gathered in front of Buyukcekmece and support from the sea began. In Silivri, some Bulgarian troops suffered as a result of the bombing of the warships. On 15 November 1912, Bulgarian artillery units dispersed with fire from the sea and from the ground. On November 16, Barbarossa Hayreddin and Turgut Reis fired at Bulgarian troops and then supported troops by landing troops on land. On November 20, 1912, the navy was on its way to defend the Dardanelles. The Greek navy took out the soldiers to Limni Island near the Dardanelles and took control of the island on 30 October 1912. The next day, Thessaloniki, Fethi Bülent corvette was torpedoed and sunken. A few more Aegean islands were seized and a Greek naval base had set up a military base in front of Çanakkale. On November 20, 1912, a Greek fleet, including the Averof cruiser, attacked Midilli and the island’s Ottoman battalion stood till December 20th. Chios Island was also attacked, but they paused when the Ottoman navy arrived at Çanakkale Strait. Nevertheless, the island did not receive any assistance from the sea for a long time; In January 1913, Greek troops seized the island. Meanwhile, the Bulgarian army approached Istanbul. Enver Pasha ordered the removal of the Bulgarian army and the removal of the Bulgarian army. Berk-i Satvet, Mecidiye, Turgut Reis and Barbarossa Hayreddin were taken out on 9 February 1913 in a fleet of warships. The town was seized with the support fire of the warships; 15 dead and 31 wounded were lost. Bulgarians were drawn to the north, but the pier in Şarköy had not yet fallen. The Ottoman forces advanced a little further in the town, the Bulgarian army acted cautiously and some troops moved by the north-east. However, it was late for the removal, the result of the coordination problem between the Ottoman units could not be found and two shipping ships went down. The Ottoman armies were withdrawn; Edirne was down. In the Aegean Sea, the defenseless Sisam Island entered the Greeks under the control of 16 March 1913.
Imroz Marine Battle.

Due to ship repair work, the Navy was waiting to get out of the Aegean, but many Aegean islands were lost. The Greek navy turned Mondros into a base and took the Dardanelles throat to the blockade. Colonel Tahir Bey refused to open the Aegean before the end of his studies and was replaced by Komodor Ramiz Numan Bey. Rauf Bey’s controls Hamidiye, Muavenet-i Milliye, Yadigar-ı Nation, Thasos and Basrah war vessels were given. This fleet is called the torpedo fleet. On December 14, 1912, during the morning hours, Sultanhisar torpedo boat was attacked by three Greek torpedoes while the ship was moving in the throat, Numune-i Hamiyet and Majidiye helped. On the 16th of December, the Ottoman navy had attacked with four armored, two cruisers and three torpedo boat warships under the command of Ramiz Bey to destroy the Greek navy. The Ottoman plan was to keep the vessels moving in the direction of Imros and the Mecidiye cruiser to stay behind the armor against torpedo salvos. At 09.30, the navy came out of the throat and the battle started with the artillery fire that opened at 09.39. In a short time the engines of the Mecidiye cruiser broke down, the order deteriorated. However, the ball shots continued, and the Averof armored speed then began to progress. The Ottoman ships, artillery fire turned Averof and Averof, heavily damaged. Ramiz Bey maneuvered in the advance of the navy, and Averof managed to escape by taking advantage of it. At 10.50 the fire was cut off and the Ottoman navy had to return. Barbarossa Hayreddin, an American ship, suffered heavy damage and was sent back for repair.

On the morning of December 22, a reconnaissance union consisting of Mecidiye, Berk-i Satvet, Muavenet-i Milliye, Dynasty Patriotic, Numune-i Hamiyet, Yarhisar, Basra and Thasos war vessels emerged from the throat. Here, the Greek navy had two clans and four torpedoes; The Greek ships were withdrawn. The Ottoman fleet began to advance to Bozcaada, where they were commissioned to sink the Greek Delphine submarine. When the Greek submarine saw the Ottoman ships, it fell from the field of view by sinking to the bottom. However, due to negative reasons at sea, he had to go up on the water again. On this, the Muavenet-i National passed an overwhelming attack, and Delfin went down again. The day that this submarine is not sunk is unknown, the Greek navy did not make any statement but did search and rescue work on Greek ships where the submarine disappeared. On January 4, 1913, the Ottoman fleet opened to sea to save Bozcaada. The fleet consisted of vessels sailing on 22nd December and the ships of Hamidiye and Mecidiye. The fleet, which searched up to the front of İmroz, did not enter into a serious conflict. Asar-i Tevfik was attacked during this time and the Greek ships were withdrawn when the other Ottoman ships came. From that point on, repair work was done in the navy and it was exited from the throat on January 18, 1913. Some torpedo boats and Asar-i Tevfik were left behind for throat protection. The Ottoman plan was based on going to the front of Mondros and entering the war with the Greek navy and destroying the Greek navy. Barbaros Hayreddin was again an admiral ship, and Mecidiye was watching ahead of the fleet. At 8:50, the Mecidiye attack, which saw two Greek warships, passed, and the Greeks were withdrawn. At 10.30, the Mecidiye cruiser suddenly started to retreat and signaled that the Greek fleet was leaving the port of Mondros. The Greek fleet included the Averof, Hydra, Specky and Pisara armored combat ships. The direction of the Greek fleet was towards Midilli. The Ottoman navy broke the rudder and began to move in the direction of the Greek navy. The distance between them was reduced and artillery fire started. [178] A round of bullets from the Averof cruiser and the flagship Barbaros Hayreddin were shot. Almost all of the Ottoman ships targeted the Averof cruiser. But the Ottoman ships began to suffer heavy damage from other Greek ships. Barbarossa A fire started in Hayreddin. The Ottoman battleships could not make a serious hit. Ramiz Bey changed the course of the dynasty and the power of fire was weak. Mecidiye came to the forefront of the enemy. Turgut Reis had saved many Barbarossa Hayreddin from the sinking by avoiding dozens of hit and burning admiralty ships. Averof then took the Turgut Reis armor under artillery fire Turgut Reis was severely damaged. The speed of the Ottoman ships, which had been hit, decreased gradually. In the last stages of the war, the quality bullets of the Averof cruiser were consumed and could be sunk by the Ottoman ships at any moment. But the Ottoman ships also suffered heavy casualties. At 14.50 hours, the two sides rolled into the fire and the war ended with a decisive Greek victory. Barbaros Hayreddin 31, Turgut Reis had 25 hits; they had to be repaired. The total loss of personnel was 41 dead and 98 wounded soldiers. In contrast, Greek staff loss was 1 injured.

“The Ottoman Empire has a seaside coastline of about ten thousand miles long, and it is necessary for the Navy to be able to effectively defend these beasts and for the political and diplomatic interests of the Eastern Mediterranean, it is also important for the navy to enter into alliance relations with any Ottoman state. it was foreseen that at least two divisions would have a warfare fleet. The fighting force of this fleet would constitute Dretno tes.For four of these dretnotes would require four companions, therefore a total of 24 destroyers were required for six Dretnotes. After the four destroyers were ordered beforehand, In addition to these, there will be an independent discovery service, four skaut that will support the attacking duties of the destroyers’ fleet and will guide them in. The last combat elements in the program were six submarines they had to be ordered primarily in terms of morale, despite the efforts of neighboring states to acquire it. ”

-Afif Büyüktuğrul

The Ottoman fleet knew that the Averof cruiser was superior in terms of firepower and speed. The Averof cruiser was struck elsewhere and a plan based on crushing the Greek navy was prepared. According to this plan, the Hamidiye under the command of Rauf Bey started the Akin Operation on January 24, 1913. The Hamidiye would draw on the Averof cruiser, and the Ottoman fleet, which benefited from the absence of the Averof cruiser, would also attack. In addition, Hamidiye was commissioned by the Balkan states to stop sea transportation. Utilizing the darkness of the night, Hamidiye opened to the sea without any problems. On January 25, at 12.30, Hamidiye attacked a Greek military base. The gun factory in the region suffered heavy damage, and then the Macedonian ship in the anchorage on the coast was sunk. Hamidiye headed to the Adriatic Sea with an unexpected move. He then went to the eastern Mediterranean for coal supply and on January 28th he dug in the port of Beirut. Very little coal was needed and the road continued. Rauf Bey, who had difficulty communicating with Istanbul, took orders to campaign on Albania. Hamidiye, who set out on February 6th, replenished coal from Malta on February 14 and opened to the Mediterranean. Amnesty was loaded on the island of Ervad near Tartus on March 6 to help the Ottoman troops in Albania. Hamidiye, heading towards Albania, came across a Greek merchant ship named Leros at sea. The ship’s crew was taken the prisoner and the ship was sunk. These crew members were questioned and the position of the Greek fleet was learned. Hamidiye, who came from Shining Port in northern Albania, caught six Greek ships helping with ammunition and destroyed them all. After that, the Hamidiye cruiser moved to the Eastern Mediterranean and replenished coal in Haifa. Unmountable arsenals and money were left in Beirut, where they would be transported by land. Hamidiye moved to Alanya to communicate with Istanbul and successfully reached Alanya on 28 March 1913. By the way, there were three Greek parish roads but could not grow; On April 17, the Greek helper cruiser named Mihali was sunk. Ammunition was taken from Alanya. When the Greek ships arrived in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Hamidiye had to cross the Red Sea via the Suez Canal. He went through repair work here, and on 18 July 1913 the Balkan wars came to an end and he was ordered to return to Rauf Bey. On September 7, 1913, Hamidiye came to the shores of Yeşilköy and was greeted with joy. Then came to the Dolmabahçe Palace and greeted the sultan with the ball throws.

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