Zimbabwe is a country in the south of Africa, without a coast. Mozambique to the east, Zambia to the north, Botswana to the west and South Africa to the south. The north of the country is surrounded by the Zambezi River and the south by the Limpopo River.
Surface area: 390,580 km²
Capital city: Harare
Date of Independence: April 17, 1980 (in Zimbabwe)
Official Language: English
11.-15. From the beginning of the century, Shona peoples developed a superior god worship in Mwariad in a prosperous society. It was a big city in the center of the Shona Empire. Now known as Great Zimbabwe, the remains can still be visited today. The rival local leaders were confused by Arab traders to take control of the changed gold and ivory for fabric, beads and other luxuries. As for the Portuguese in the 1500s, they had parties in these disputes to trade for themselves. The locals were angered by Portuguese intervention, and in the early 17th century these early Europeans left the Zimbabwe places well.
In the 18th century, the Ndebele people settled in the Bulawayo region of Zimbabwe, escaping from the north (to escape from Zulu). In the mid 18th century, the English were interested in the region.
Initially, only a few missionaries, merchants, and explorers such as David Livingstone, went north of Limpopo. However, researchers with gold reports in the region were infiltrated.
In 1891, the British were annexed to the north of Transvaal, all the societies between Mozambique and the German South-West Africa under Portuguese control. Any opposition from local people like Ndebele had been suppressed. The region governed by Cecil Rhodes British Southern Africa (BSA) Company was elected in 1894 in Rhodesia (after Cecil Rhodes). In 1922, the BSA administration had left a white sovereign class, which ended in control and control.
Reception of the land
Cecil Rhodes came to South Africa in 1871. He was a miner. But it was not just about gold. Rhodes wanted to spread British interests to the region. For this reason, local African leaders have been tempted to make concessions to their fields. It was not long ago that the white settlers in South Africa had taken over agricultural land.
The birth of today’s Zimbabwe
In 1953, Britain formed a Central African Federation consisting of South Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), North Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nicaand (Malavi). This broke up when Zambia and Malawi gained independence ten years later.
Preparing a party
Robert Mugabe was the head of the ZANU party in 1970. Later, this party reunited Joshua Nkomo with ZAPU to form ZANU-PF or “Patriotic Front”.
In 1965, the white minority government on the Rhodesian Front left England, headed by Ian Smith. By abandoning the rights of blacks, this government led to international fury and brought economic sanctions.
Black Zimbabwe have been defending their rights for decades. Opposition parties such as the Zimbabwean African Union (ZAPU) led by Joshua Nkomo were established. In 1963 this party was divided and the more radical wing, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) was established. The guerilla war broke out, and in the 1970s it became a civil war.
The civil war was paralyzing the country. Britain helped make a ceasefire and a new constitution in 1979. The elections were held the following year. The Republic of Zimbabwe became independent in April 1980 and Robert Mugabe became president.